For many years, fatty foods were considered the cause of extra pounds. But relatively recently, researchers revisited this theory and came to a completely different conclusion. It turns out you can eat large portions of fatty foods and … lose weight! There is even a special diet in protein fat called ketone.
What is a keto diet
A ketogenic, ketone, or keto diet is a diet based on food intake that is low in carbohydrates, moderate in protein, and high in fat.
Adherence to such a nutritional program triggers in the body a process called ketosis, which, of course, leads to the burning of fat stores. But this was not the main reason for the keto diet. Initially, the ketone nutrition program was used as part of a complex therapy for the treatment of childhood epilepsy. But after a while it became clear that this diet is very effective for weight loss. People who have tried at least once in their life to lose weight with a diet know that lost kilograms are often not the fat deposits they have got rid of. Weight loss often occurs due to the removal of excess fluid from the body or the destruction of muscle mass. But on a ketogenic diet, kilograms are promised to be lost as divided fat.
To understand the principle of ketone diet, you must first understand what ketosis is, which, of course, gave the name to this nutritional system.
Any food that people eat is a source of three important nutrients: proteins, fats and carbohydrates. In the process of carbohydrate metabolism, the body receives extra energy, as well as “food” for brain cells. But if carbohydrates are abundant in parts of consumable products, everything that the body could not immediately process and use goes to a “bunker,” as you will say, on a wet day. And those same “bins” are just subcutaneous fat deposits. And this process is repeated every time after you eat high-carb foods.
And now the main question: what happens to the body if it blocks the “supply” of carbohydrates ?. If carbohydrates are completely excluded from the diet, then, in reality, there will be nothing good from this. A prolonged carbohydrate hunger strike can be fatal. But this is only in real cases, when nutrient consumption is reduced to zero and for a long time does not replenish its stores. However, if carbohydrates are not completely excluded from the diet, but reduced to the minimum essential acids, you can count on losing weight very quickly.
Why the ketone diet?
When the body does not get enough carbohydrates, it starts looking for backup energy sources. But such resources already exist and are in subcutaneous fat. This causes a fat burning reaction to be stimulated in the body, resulting in the formation of fatty acids and ketone bodies. Glucose substitutes are ketone bodies. In addition, when the body enters a state of ketosis (increase in ketone body density), in people with epilepsy, the frequency of seizures decreases. Why this happens, scientists continue to investigate.
For medical purposes, for the treatment of epilepsy, the ketone diet provides for the consumption of foods with a minimum content of carbohydrates, and the amount of protein and fat in the diet should be in a ratio of 1: 4. That is, all high-carbohydrate foods are eliminated from the diet, and as much fat as possible is added to maintain the calorie content of the diet. But not all lipids make a diet just as effective. For the onset of ketosis in the body, it is important not to eat long-chain fatty acids, but medium-chain ones, which are, for example, in coconut oil.
For the first time, man learned about the benefits of a ketone diet for the treatment of epilepsy in the early twentieth century, but soon interest in this method emerged in medical circles and it revived almost a century later. But in the meantime, the keto diet has discovered new uses and has become part of sports nutrition.
In addition, they have recently started talking that the keto diet is beneficial for cancer. If you miss all the complex scientific explanations, the process will look something like this. Cancer cells need glucose to maintain viability. With a deficiency of carbohydrates, malignant tumors lose their ability to grow. Research in this area is ongoing. But the experiment conducted in 2012 in New York with the participation of 10 volunteers with malignant tumors confirmed this theory.
Keto-diet: duration, stages, variation
You will sometimes hear that a keto diet is a common low-carb diet. Of course, this is not true. According to the principles of exposure to the body, this system is very similar to the popular Atkins or Kremlin diet. Ketone nutrition rebuilds the body from normal glycolysis to lipolysis, and this takes time. Therefore, to get results, the ketogenic program should be followed for 2-3 weeks. In addition, a large loss of fat should not be expected in the first week, because at this time the body is not rebuilt to a new regime and continues to process the stores. remaining carbohydrates.
The stages of body restructuring look like this:
The first. Lasts 12 hours after the last phase of carbohydrate intake. At this stage, the body will make full use of the available sources of glucose.
The second one. Lasts 24-48 hours. During this time, the body consumes stores of glycogen contained in the liver and muscles.
The third man. The beginning of the restructuring of metabolism. The body is looking for an alternative to carbohydrates in fatty acids and proteins, including those in muscle mass.
Fourth. It starts on the 7th. The body adapts to a lack of carbohydrates and adapts to a ketogenic state, rejecting proteins as an energy source.
In addition to the above levels, there is another one – the right way out of the keto diet. You can’t immediately switch to a complete diet full of carbohydrates. The body needs to be changed again, but this time it needs to change to glycolysis.
For this, carbohydrates should be administered gradually, increasing their level by a maximum of 30 g per day.
Contents of a keto diet
Ketone diet is not clearly defined for a week or more. A keto diet is a set of products with a minimum carbohydrate content. As a rule, to initiate ketosis in the body, it is important not to eat more than 30-50 g of pure carbohydrates per day.
Keto-diet, although in small quantities, but still contains carbohydrates. Nutritionists advise choosing vegetables that are high in fiber as a source of this nutrient. This is essential for maintaining healthy digestive processes. Don’t eat ready meals, semi-finished products, sauces bought on a diet. All of them, as a rule, contain a lot of carbohydrates in the form of starch and sugar. To prevent the spillage and replenishment of carbohydrates, preference should be given to products with the so-called complex carbohydrates (grains, cereals).
In some cases, it is permissible to eat a small amount of fast carbohydrates, but their source should not be sugars at all, but just fruit.
Although fat in the keto diet is not a banned ingredient, there are special rules for choosing foods with fat. Preferably, saturated fat (found in butter, meat, cheeses) should account for about 20-30% of the total amount of lipids consumed. It is best to get the rest from foods that are rich in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats.
A protein plan can be made with food from animal and plant sources.
Allowed diet results:
different types of meat;
fish (especially marine);
dairy and sour milk products (preferably with a lower percentage of fat content, as they contain fewer carbohydrates);
non-starchy vegetables (preferably leafy);
fruit with a minimum sugar content.
sugar and other sweeteners;
Based on this list, it’s easy to schedule for a week or for a full diet course. The main thing is not to go beyond the allowed level of carbohydrates.
The keta diet in sports has been known for a long time. Bodybuilders use this nutritional system to burn fat and dehydration. But unlike the classic version of ketone nutrition, in sports the ratio of fat and protein shifts toward the latter. At the same time, the amount of carbohydrates in the diet for athletes should not exceed 10%. Another thing, it does not work effectively to lose weight.
Depending on the intensity of the diet, there are three options for ketone nutrition:
normal keto diet;
targeted, or targeted;
The simplest version of the keto diet is considered to be the standard version. By monitoring, it is important to maintain a regular ratio of BJU each day, traditionally focusing on proteins and fats, limiting carbohydrates. This version of the diet is suitable for athletes who do not have very intense training or accept physical activity well without eating a lot of carbohydrates. Plus, this is the choice most people who want to lose weight have that are not related to professional sports.
A focused ketogenic diet takes days with more carbohydrates. This option is suitable only for athletes. Carbohydrate downloading on a keto diet is done twice: just before training and just after, the rest of the time you should stick to the normal ketogenic program. This option is the right solution for people who want to start burning fat, but amid a lack of carbohydrates they feel a lack of strength for full work.
The circular ketone diet provides for timely administration on carbohydrate days. A cycle like this allows you to follow a diet for a long time, but at the same time protect the body from an acute deficiency of carbohydrates. The frequency of repetition of carbohydrate days depends on the athlete’s goals, the intensity of the training, as well as the degree of depletion of carbohydrate stores in the muscles. But before you start a cyco keto diet, you should go through the status and target.
Keto diet and muscle building
There is much evidence about the effectiveness of the ketone diet for weight loss. But is it possible to observe this nutritional system for athletes who are keen on gaining muscle mass? Experts say you can’t, importantly, forget to count calories eaten. Too many calories in the diet contributes to muscle growth, deficiency – leading to weight loss. But if the main task is to build muscle, the choice should be made regarding the target or the circular version of the diet. They allow you to run the “drying out” without damaging the muscles.
Keto menu for athletes
The standard proportions of BJU for athletes look something like this. For every kilogram of lean muscle mass, 0,22-0,44 g of carbohydrates, 2,2 g of protein and 1,8-1,88 g of fat should be consumed.
If the athlete is adhering to the target keto diet, then just before training, you should eat a lot more carbohydrates per 0.5-1 g per kilogram of dry weight. This portion can be divided into two ways: before and after training.
On a cyco keto diet, extra portions of carbohydrates are usually given no earlier than 2 weeks after the start of the diet. On days of carbohydrate loading, nutrient intake should be increased at the rate of 5-10 g per kilogram of dry weight, but by reducing the amount of fat. This will maintain the correct calorie level.
Possible side effects and risks
General weakness is the first and most obvious aspect of a ketogenic diet. During the first 7-14 days, the body regenerates to a ketogenic state, and this level of carbohydrate deficiency is largely accompanied by a decline in strength and weakness. But after change, health improves, and the body learns to see ketone bodies as the main source of energy.
In some people, even though they eat a lot of fatty foods, blood cholesterol levels can rise, which in turn is harmful to the cardiovascular system. In addition, a low-carb diet is usually low in vitamins, minerals, and many other beneficial ingredients. Conventional multivitamins from pharmacies will help prevent the development of vitamin deficiency.
Another threat of a ketone diet is abdominal abuse. Lack of adequate fiber (usually found in carbohydrate foods) causes asthma, intestinal dysbiosis, and other unpleasant side effects.
In addition, ketogenic diet is strictly prohibited for people with diseases of the thyroid gland, kidneys, liver or digestive tract.
But the benefits and harms of the ketone diet for diabetes have not yet gained a clear opinion among researchers. Some argue that a carbohydrate-free diet is good for people with diabetes. Others tend to think that a ketogenic condition may contribute to diabetic ketoacidosis.
You cannot switch to a carbohydrate-free diet for pregnant women, nursing mothers, children and teens. It is better to find another diet for weight loss for people who need more mental activity, as a lack of carbohydrates has a significant effect on the brain, removing fat and fat.
Thanks to the unconventional way to lose weight, the ketone diet is interesting for many people who want to lose weight. But in addition to the fat burning effect, this nutritional system has many side effects. Therefore, nutritionists recommend that people who are overweight, for starters, simply reduce their daily calorie intake, and use the keto diet as the final stage of weight loss. – to dehydrate and create muscle relaxing effects.